Voters and non-voters

 

Hillary Clinton in Concord, New Hampshire
Hillary Clinton in Concord, New Hampshire (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Hillary Clinton won more votes than Donald Trump in the US elections, yet she didn’t win the presidency. This has led to many of Clinton’s supporters to cry foul, and talk about getting rid of the electoral college system that they have in the US.

It’s not going to happen. The electoral college is a result of the unique formation of the United States of America. Before the Union all the states were autonomous and had their own laws and regulations and these were protected in the US Constitution. One of the safeguards which was built in was to protect the electoral system within a state from being replaced or modified by those not from that state, and this resulted more or less directly in the electoral college system.

English: 1908 Electoral College
English: 1908 Electoral College (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

As a consequence of this being part of the constitution, it is very difficult to change. To just become a proposal an amendment requires a two-thirds vote in congress, and requires a three-quarters vote by the states to be adopted. Since the two major parties pretty much share the country, it would require all the votes of one party and around half the votes of the other party.

There have been many ways that the leader or leaders of group of humans is chosen, and there are many words that end in the suffixes -ocracy or -archy. All have their advocates and their denigrators. All have probably been tried somewhere at sometime or other.

Countries highlighted in blue are designated &...
Countries highlighted in blue are designated “Electoral Democracies” in Freedom House’s 2006 survey Freedom in the World. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

In an attempt to define how a person should be treated and the rights that he or she should have, Eleanor Roosevelt chaired a committee which wrote the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, a somewhat fatuous document which was adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations.

Article 21 of the UDHR talks about the right of everyone to take part in the government of his/her country, and implies but stops short of prescribing representative democracy. As such, the UDHR has plenty of “wriggle room” for alternative for other methods of government, as even a dictator could argue, and they often do, that what preceded them was worse and the dictatorship is merely a step towards returning or giving the power to the people.

(1) Everyone has the right to take part in the government of his country, directly or through freely chosen representatives.
(2) Everyone has the right of equal access to public service in his country.
(3) The will of the people shall be the basis of the authority of government; this will shall be expressed in periodic and genuine elections which shall be by universal and equal suffrage and shall be held by secret vote or by equivalent free voting procedures.

Many regimes though, don’t even try to argue they are merely filling a gap, but no doubt think that they are doing the best for their people. No one surely sets out to be a blood-thirsty dictator, after all. Arguably, though, a volatile country might benefit from a period with a strong leader, but eventually a strong leader will become succumb to a feeling of hubris and entitlement. Eventually he will be overthrown.

60 th Anniversary of the Universal Declaration...
60 th Anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (2008) (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

There exists a strong feeling that democracy is the best form of government that humans have tried. Whether or not it is the best system that is possible is another question. In a democracy everyone has a say and theoretically at least the government can be replaced, without revolution or bloodshed, if the population at large decides that it doesn’t like those it has elected.

Most democracies are representative democracies, in that the population do not normally vote on all issues, but elect a person to represent them in governing the country. Ideally such a representative would canvas or solicit views on topics that have to be decided, but in practise a potential representative will lay out his/her views and the electors pick the person who most closely fits their viewpoint.

Women standing in line to vote in Bangladesh.
Women standing in line to vote in Bangladesh. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Since this is done before the representative is selected, a future contentious issue may find the representative at odds with many of his constituents on the issue. While a good representative will make his views known and may solicit electoral views, and the electors can make the representative aware of their views by various means, the communication between the representative and his electors is to say the least inefficient.

A big thing about democracy is that everyone has at least one vote. In some systems a person may have more than vote, and in almost all democracies the voter gets a chance to vote to fill various roles, such as mayor, or sheriff, or local councillor. A democracy is an involving system, soliciting voter views on a periodic basis, so why don’t people get involved?


Embed from Getty Images

In the recent American Presidential election only just over 50% of the electorate voted, and this was in one of the most controversial elections of recent times. Since each candidate took almost half the popular vote only one in four voters voted to make Trump president. Of course only about one in four voters voted for Clinton (who got more votes than Clinton).

People don’t vote if they can’t be bothered, if they think that their vote will not make a difference and a small number don’t vote because they disagree with the process, maybe for political or religious reasons. The US is not alone in this, as a significant number of voters do not vote in an election in many democracies.


http://www.gettyimages.com/detail/599757474

I would suggest that this is true in most democracies, but I don’t have the data. Some people suggest that making the voting easier by introducing electronic voting over the Internet, but I feel that this will not make a big difference. I feel that the reason for low turnouts is disinterest and a belief voting doesn’t make any real difference.

“For politicians, passing laws is like passing water,” said Narayan. “It all ends down the drain.”
Rohinton Mistry, A Fine Balance

Election promises are rarely believed and seldom acted upon. There is unlikely to be a wall built between the United States and Mexico. Trump has succeeded with that promise however, not because people believe that he will do, but because he most aligns with what people would like to do, and I don’t mean build a wall. He has proposed a solution to a perceived problem, and that is good enough for those who turned out and voted. Any solution that catches the imagination of the voters would have done as well.


Embed from Getty Images

 

 

Early television and that mess of metal on the roof

English: British Murphy black and white 405 li...
English: British Murphy black and white 405 line Television receiver 1951. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

In the beginning the consumer television set was a large box with a small blurry screen. To successfully receive one of the few channels being broadcast one needed an aerial to pick up the broadcasts. They came in two sorts. One was a huge “H” or “X” shape that was located on the roof and aligned with the signal from the broadcaster. The other was a small device consisting of a base made of plastic and two metal prongs, known as “rabbit’s ears“.

Of the two types you will only see the rabbit’s ears aerial still being used today. Since television has moved from the VHF (Very High Frequency) band to the UHF (Ultra High Frequency) band, television aerials have shrunk in size and the technology has now improved so that television aerials have become the compact roof top Yagi style aerials that are common today.

Nederlands: Schets Yagi antenne
Nederlands: Schets Yagi antenne (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Although it is obvious from the shape of the Yagi aerials that they receive a directed signal, I suspect that not many people know why they are the shape that they are. There is only one element that picks up the signal and that is one of the cross bars on the main shaft of the aerial. All others elements (including the mesh element at the back if there is one) serve to concentrate and direct the incoming signal towards the main element or dipole.

This means that the aerial can pick out weaker signals from general noise but it does mean that the aerial must be aligned fairly accurately with the transmitters signal.

English: Communal aerial This seems to be a co...
English: Communal aerial This seems to be a communal TV aerial for the farms hidden between Baugh Fell and the Howgills. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

There is a new type of aerial that has become common in recent years and that is the dish aerial. Dish aerials are generally used to pick up signals from stationary satellites and need to detect weak signals broadcast from space. The actual dipole is in the small plastic box in front of the dish. The dish is a passive reflector and just concentrates the small signal onto the dipole in the box, much like the Yagi aerial does for UHF frequencies. Satellite signals are of even higher frequency than the UHF ones.


Embed from Getty Images

In the early days of broadcasting and with the use of VHF frequencies, ghosting was a problem. Because early aerials (and “the rabbit’s ear” type of aerials) were not particularly directional they could receive signals which had bounced off various obstacles on their way from the transmitter to the receiver. The reflection from obstacles such as hills and large buildings meant that the receiver would collect signals which had travelled by different routes and hence had taken slightly different times to reach it.

The result of this was that the images on the screen either appeared to have shadows or duplicates. This phenomenon was called “ghosting” and in a bad case it might appear that in a broadcast soccer match that the match was being contested by two teams of twenty two players using two balls.


Embed from Getty Images

This phenomenon is not often seen these days as UHF signals and satellite signals are much more directional and hence do not receive signals bounced from obstacles in their line of view which has a much narrower angle.

In the early days of television technology the electronic equipment in the receivers was in its infancy. The circuits leaked signals between their parts, and components were not as stable as they are today. Valves and other components had to “warm up” to operating temperature and often the oscillators and other circuits tended to “drift” away from the nominal operating frequencies.


Embed from Getty Images

In real terms this meant that those watching the program would often find that the picture would appear to roll up or down the screen. Someone would have to leap up and twiddle the controls at the back of the television to try to stop the picture rolling. Very often the twiddler would adjust the control to stop the rolling, only to find that his or her very presence had affected the circuits and the screen would start to roll as soon as he or she moved away.

Other effects would cause other issues. Unstable circuits would cause the image to shake like a jelly, or tear completely in one or more places. It was a true art form to twiddle the available knobs (of which there were many) to produce a decent and more or less stable picture.


Embed from Getty Images

Screens were small. Early sets had dimensions of perhaps 9 inches (23 cms). Today screens of 50 inches or more are common. Each screen had (in the UK at least) 405 lines all of which were scanned in one or more cycles. The early television tubes were not very accurate and each line could be clearly seen, and so sometimes could the “flyback” as the circuitry returned the beam to the top of the screen for the next scan.

The end effect was a small picture blurred by circuitry instabilities, often with artifacts like the “flyback” lines polluting the picture, and plagued by instabilities, but which showed pictures of news around the world, or educational programs or discussion panels, plays or game shows. And they even broadcast cartoons for the kids. Everyone wanted one, of course!


Embed from Getty Images

Obviously things improved very quickly. Television electronics became much better, and the pictures much more stable especially when transistors were introduced. The screen increased in size, and colour television was introduced. Some would argue that the quality of the television content has dropped dramatically, but that doesn’t change the fact that most people have one or more televisions in their house and it has become the central focus of many lounges and living rooms. Many people have them in bedrooms, bathrooms and kitchens these days.

It is ironic that broadcast television may well have peaked. More and more people use their television sets to show content that has not been broadcast, but which has been obtained over the Internet. It may be that this network distributed content may totally displace the broadcast television service and that people will no longer be tied to a broadcast schedule, picking up content that they want to watch from a myriad of Internet sources.

English: How to connect telephone, radio, tele...
English: How to connect telephone, radio, television, internet via glass fibre Nederlands: Aansluiten van telefoon, radio, televisie, internet via glasvezel (Photo credit: Wikipedia)